Summative Essay: Organization Development and Change

This course’s summative essay is an extension of the application essay. To extend your previous essay, perform two operations:

Improve and refine your writing in your application essay.

Use the instructor’s feedback, when it arrives, for additional guidance. If you need to replace sources, you should be able to do so without appreciably having to change any written content. Scrutinize the posted APA-formatted paper for additional insights.

Add sections as noted below.

Proceed with the sections noted below while you await the instructor’s feedback. Be sure to cite Kotter (1995), but note that it is a non-qualifying source for purposes of counting your required peer-reviewed journal articles (see syllabus, purple section).

Prior sections. From the application essay, you should already have: (a) title page and executive summary; (b) introduction; (c) analysis; and (d) formulation. The analysis section should already include three subsections: (a) strategic analysis; (b) diagnostic model; and (c) structural dilemmas.

New sections:

Implementation. Include the two subsections that follow. Provide an introductory paragraph of at least two sentences to explain to the reader what you are about to cover in this section.

Implementation plan. Use Kotter’s (1995) eight-step model. Judge what to do in each step, to address your previously described problem. Write at least two sentences per step.

For example, for the second step, state the need to establish a guiding coalition to manage the change process effectively. Then decide whom (by job title) to include in that organization change team.

Communication plan. Describe a plan for managing communication to accompany the change process, using the guidance provided in Palmer et al. (2022) and the lectures.

Link the plan to the foregoing eight steps. The plan should answer basic questions such as how to ensure that all employees know what is occurring and how to motivate them to contribute.

Evaluation. Apply studied judgment to determine: (a) who will collect the data to assess the success of the intervention; (b) what measures to use (e.g., survey data, balanced-scorecard data, or other kinds of performance measures); (c) what deadlines to establish for receiving the data; and (d) who will receive the results. Create a table for the appendix to summarize this section.

Conclusion. Restate what you have sought to do in the essay, recap what you have done, and then briefly discuss any implications that come to mind regarding organizational functioning.

Standards for This Essay:

See the posted APA-styled sample paper. Minimum length is 2,000 words, from the introduction to the end of the concluding section, excluding quoted or parenthetical content. In the interest of demonstrating thought rather than merely the ability to find lists of items, please relegate all tables, images, and bulleted or numbered lists consisting of fragments to the appendices, as these devices will not count toward the required length, but will incur a penalty if found in the body. The length does, however, include your previously written 1,400 words, so it should be very easy to achieve 2,000 this time. Cite at least the textbook and six qualifying sources based on the criteria listed in the syllabus (purple section—very important; please follow the rules very closely). Your six qualifying sources include any sources in your application essay that were also qualifying (hence only one more qualifying source, if you met the standard in the prior essay).

To amend your essay (before the deadline), type “AMENDED SUBMISSION” above the title on the title page in the new version.


Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59–67.

Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Buchanan, D. A. (2022). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

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