Research Article Synthesis

Please synthesize the article in narrative form to address EACH HEADING! When writing, please write in the order of the headings. YOU should always include the information that has been required that is in the red font below.  If some part of information was not included, such a theoretical framework, state in the synthesis that it was not provided.  The most relevant statistical analysis should be included, especially data that supports the topic, including the purpose of the study and hypotheses/research questions

Relevance of Article to Proposed Study

Describe how the article is relevant to the proposed study.

Synthesis of Article for Literature Review

Remember to synthesize/paraphrase information.  No quotations. 


State the author(s)’ purpose of the research.  The purpose might be called an aim, a goal, or a desired outcome. 

Research Questions or Hypotheses:

What questions/hypotheses is the research study aiming to answer?  If there are numerous research questions and/or hypotheses, you can summarize this information. 

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework:

Not all studies identify a conceptual or theoretical framework. If a framework is identified, include the name of the framework and the author who developed the theory or concept. If a framework is not identified, state that there was no theoretical framework identified.

Research Design (be specific. i.e., quantitative or qualitative and specific type):

Identify whether the research design is quantitative or qualitative (or mixed methods) and identify the specific type of research design.


Population is the entire population eligible for participation in a study. The sample is a finite group of the population that participated in the study. Describe the sample thoroughly to include inclusion and exclusion criteria.


The setting is where and when the study took place. 

Instrumentation (including validity and reliability):

The instrumentation is the tool that was used in the study. Identify and describe the instruments used.  The validity and reliability of the tool should also be reported. Validity refers to the accuracy of an instrument. Reliability refers to the consistency of an instrument or measurement. If validity and reliability of the tool is not reported, you need to state that. 

If an intervention is included in the research design, describe the intervention in this area.   

For qualitative research, include the description of the interview guide or interview script. 

Statistical Methods (quantitative studies)/Data Analysis (quantitative and qualitative studies):

Report the statistical methods used in the quantitative studies. For qualitative studies, identify the type of qualitative data analysis that was used. 

Findings (link the findings to research questions or hypotheses):

Report actual statistical findings for quantitative studies or thematic findings for qualitative studies.  Focus on the findings most relevant to your topic. 

Implications of the findings:

Report the implications identified by the author(s).  Implications do not include recommendations for future research.

Generalizability of the findings:

For quantitative findings, are the findings able to be generalized to the population being studied? The larger the sample population, the more generalizable the results. Pilot studies are not generalizable. 

Qualitative results are not generalizable because they are individual perceptions.


Limitations are threats to internal validity/reliability that were impossible to be avoided or minimized. If the study does not identify limitations, state that.


Bias is anything that introduces prejudice or potential prejudice in a study.  Report any bias identified by the author(s). 

Study recommendations:

Report the recommendations for future research identified by the author(s). (Note: This is where you will begin to establish your gap in the literature as reported in Chapter I.) 

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