Optimizing 5G Network Performance

All reference must have to be before 2019 March time frame, and figures must have to be MAY 2019 time frame

IEEE Paper Format Require

Introduction / abstract – 5G Cellular Network FR1 & FR2 explanation

What is 5G network and 5G FR1 & FR2 network deployment

The range of a 5G New Radio (NR) eNodeB (evolved NodeB) in Frequency Range 1 (FR1) is influenced by several factors, including the specific frequency band used, transmit power, antenna configuration, environmental conditions, and the presence of obstacles. Frequency Range 1 covers sub-6 GHz frequencies, which generally have better propagation characteristics compared to millimeter-wave frequencies (FR2).
In FR1, sub-6 GHz bands are used for 5G deployment, and they offer better coverage and penetration through obstacles. The effective range of a 5G FR1 eNodeB can vary based on the specific frequency band within the sub-6 GHz range. Common FR1 frequency bands include:

  1. Frequency Range 1 Low (FR1-Low):
    o This includes bands below 3 GHz, such as the 600 MHz, 700 MHz, and 800 MHz bands.
  2. Frequency Range 1 Mid (FR1-Mid):
    o This includes bands around 3 GHz to 6 GHz, such as the 2.5 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 3.7 GHz bands.
  3. Frequency Range 1 High (FR1-High):
    o This includes bands around 6 GHz to 24 GHz, such as the 24 GHz and 28 GHz bands.
    The range of an FR1 eNodeB can vary from a few kilometers to several kilometers, depending on factors such as the frequency band, transmit power, and deployment scenario. Lower-frequency bands (FR1-Low and FR1-Mid) generally provide better coverage and are more suitable for wide-area deployments, while higher-frequency bands (FR1-High) may offer higher data rates but with potentially shorter coverage ranges.
    Network operators often employ a mix of frequency bands within FR1 to achieve a balance between coverage and capacity. Advanced antenna technologies, such as Massive MIMO (Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output), beamforming, and dynamic spectrum sharing, are also used to optimize the range and performance of 5G eNodeBs in FR1.
    The range of a 5G New Radio (NR) eNodeB (evolved NodeB) in Frequency Range 2 (FR2), which covers the millimeter-wave spectrum, is influenced by various factors, including the specific frequency band used, environmental conditions, and deployment scenario. The millimeter-wave spectrum (FR2) typically includes frequencies above 24 GHz, with bands extending up to 52.6 GHz.
    The propagation characteristics of millimeter-wave signals introduce challenges such as increased susceptibility to atmospheric absorption, rain fade, and higher susceptibility to blockage by obstacles. As a result, the effective range of FR2 signals is generally shorter compared to lower-frequency bands used in 5G (Frequency Range 1 or FR1).
    In dense urban environments, where buildings and other obstacles are prevalent, the effective range of a 5G FR2 eNodeB may be limited to a few hundred meters or less. The deployment of millimeter-wave networks often involves the placement of small cells in close proximity to support high-capacity and high-data-rate applications.
    In more open or suburban environments with fewer obstacles, the range of an FR2 eNodeB may extend to a few kilometers. However, it’s important to note that the range can vary based on the specific frequency band within the FR2 range and the available spectrum bandwidth.
    Network operators and planners consider these factors when deploying 5G networks, often employing a combination of frequency ranges (both FR1 and FR2) to achieve a balance between coverage and capacity. The use of beamforming and advanced antenna technologies is also common in FR2 deployments to improve signal coverage and overcome the challenges associated with millimeter-wave propagation.
    5G Aperiodic event-based measurement:
    Aperiodic Measurements:
    o Frequency:
     Aperiodic measurements are triggered based on specific events or conditions, rather than at predetermined intervals.
    o Purpose:
     They are initiated when there is a need for immediate information, such as during handover decisions or changes in the radio environment.
    o Network Optimization:
     Aperiodic measurements are crucial for timely and context-specific decision-making, such as initiating handovers or adjusting configuration based on changing conditions.
    o Examples:
     Immediate measurement reporting triggered by events like handover preparation, cell reselection, or changes in the radio link quality.
    • Aperiodic measurements are event-triggered and provide timely information for specific decision-making scenarios, improving the responsiveness of the network to dynamic conditions
    5G Periodic Measurement:
  • Periodic Measurements:
    • Frequency:
    o Periodic measurements are taken at regular intervals, predetermined by the network configuration.
    • Purpose:
    o They are typically used for continuous monitoring of specific radio parameters to ensure ongoing network optimization.
    • Network Optimization:
    o Periodic measurements are valuable for maintaining and optimizing radio resources, enabling adjustments to parameters like power levels, modulation, and coding schemes.
    • Examples:
    o Monitoring and reporting signal strength, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and interference levels at regular intervals.
    In summary, both periodic and aperiodic measurements serve important roles in 5G networks:
    The combination of both measurement types allows for a flexible and adaptive approach to network management, supporting efficient utilization of resources and ensuring optimal performance in various scenarios.

Real-world issue:
Issue: 5G Network Configures measurement for all the UEs and 5G network can be congested due to various region listed below.
• High User Density: In densely populated areas, a large number of users accessing the network simultaneously can lead to congestion, especially during peak hours.
• Limited Spectrum Resources: The availability of spectrum resources in the sub-6 GHz bands may be limited, leading to congestion as the number of connected devices increases.
• Increased Data Demand: Higher data rates and increased usage of bandwidth-intensive applications can contribute to congestion.
• Limited Coverage: FR2 includes millimeter-wave bands, such as 24 GHz, 28 GHz, and higher. Millimeter-wave signals have limited propagation range and can be easily blocked by obstacles, leading to challenges in providing
• One more Example of issue: Suppose UE camped on 5G EARFCN PCI 1 and measuring slight lower RSRP and SNR compare to intra or inter EARFCN PCI 2 but UE will not send measurement report till A3, A4, A5 event not happens

5G Network Congestion solution:

In high density and FR2 coverage area network to monitor congestion and network to schedule Periodic measurement of each UE to get continuous measurement data. Network to utilize all UE measurement and whichever UE measuring lower RSRP & SNR network can force handover of those UE to another gNodeB or network can also force redirection to non-congested and nearby gNodeB which will help in 5G network load balancing. Netwrok also can determine this data for interference level and improvement. Lastly, Network can use periodic measurement for 5G network triangulation which is location-based technique used to determine the geographical position of a mobile device or user within a 5G network so this network optimization techniques solve two purpose.

Solution example:
Periodic measurement includes: Such as UE camped on 5G PCI 1 and measuring lower RSRP & SNR and same UE measuring good RSRP & SNR on PCI 2 so network can force handover to PCI 2 based on this periodic measurement because aperiodic measurement might not sent till UE sent event A3 or A4

Using this method of periodic measurement in 5G network, load balancing can be effectively managed especially in high user density area, higher data rate demand and FR2 limited network coverage when many ue trying to access same cell this technique will help in higher 5G network utilization and also network triangulation help network determine UE location using

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