How to Write a Scientific Paper

Abstract: It should have maximum 200 words in English, structured using the following sub-headings: Objectives (state the aims and objectives of the research, “What is it about and why is it important?”), Prior Work (What extant concepts, research, or experiences is the paper trying to build on? How does the paper relate to other research in this topic area?), Approach (What approach was used to capture the practical/research evidence? What were the main methods employed (e.g. survey, observation, case study), Results (highlight the key results and conclusions from the empirical studies, evidence or experiences presented; it ensures that results are clear, precise and justified), Implications (summarize the implications of the study for one or more of the following groups – academics, researchers, administrators of the university etc.) and Value (clearly state the key contribution of the paper and what is original or unique. Ensure that the reader is convinced of the paper’s added value that it is thoroughly researched and is of high quality). The Detailed references to prior work are required in the paper but NOT in the Abstract.
Keywords: minimum 3 and maximum 5 keywords or short phrases, which are not contained in the title, separated by semicolon (restricted to 20 characters each)
JEL Classification: (for Economic domain) separated by semicolon

1 Introduction
These instructions are designed for authors submitting final papers and should be read carefully. This author kit is designed to assist authors in preparing their submission. It is an exact representation of the format expected by the editor for the final version of papers. These guidelines include complete descriptions of the fonts, spacing, and related information for producing your manuscripts. Final submissions not following the required format will be returned to the authors for modification and compliance. One can simply edit the document you are now viewing.
All scientific papers should be written in English or French. The abstract and keywords must be written in English.

2 Paper Preparation
2.1 General Organization of the Paper
It is recommended that Scientific Papers have explicit sections for Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Related Work, Problem Statement, Concept and Terms, Solution Approach, Analysis of Results, Conclusions, Future Work, Acknowledgement and References.
A conclusion section is not required. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the paper, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion. A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions.

2.2 Typing Area
The paper size is A4 (210 x 297mm), single-column format with a 2.5 cm margins on the top, bottom, left and right.
The recommended type font is Times New Roman 11pt (on a Macintosh use the font named Times 11pt). Only for tables and figures (illustrations) may you use Helvetica, Universe or other sans-serif fonts. Use Roman as default type and keep italics and/or bold for special text parts.
Recommended type font sizes:
a. For the title: 14pt
b. For authors name: 12pt
c. For authors’ affiliation and address: 9 pt
d. For the main text (including headings): 11pt
e. For abstract, keywords, JEL Classification (if appropriate) footnotes, bibliography, figures and tables: 9pt
Lines are single spaced, justified. Standard paragraph has no space before and 6pt after the paragraph.

2.3. Writing Style, Language and Spelling
• Use common technical terms.
• Do not try to create new English/French words.
• Spelling: Follow Longman or Oxford Dictionaries/ATILF Dictionnaire
Usually you should not use the first person singular (I) in your text, write we instead. As a general recommendation, use the first person sparsely, sometimes it can be replaced by a phrase like: This work presents….

3 Typographical Style and Layout
3.1 Title and Abstract
Centre the title (horizontally) on the page. Leave approx. 1 cm between the title and the names, affiliation and address of authors. Type these information centred.
The title, abstract and keywords should be written in English language regardless of the language of the article.

3.2 Headings
Number section and subsection headings consecutively in Arabic numbers and type them in bold, respectively italics. Keep headings and subheadings always flushed left. Do not include references to the literature, illustrations and tables in headings and subheadings. Keep one blank line above a section heading and one above a subheading. Put one blank line under a section heading and no blank line under a subheading. Only if you want to emphasize specific parts of the main text, use italics. Otherwise, use Roman.
Headings should be capitalized (i.e., nouns, verbs, and all other words except articles, prepositions, and conjunctions should be set with an initial capital) and should, with the exception of the title, be aligned to the left. Words joined by a hyphen ( – ) are subject to a special rule. If the first word can stand alone, the second word should be capitalized.

3.3 Footnotes
The superscript numeral used to refer to a footnote appears in the text either directly after the word to be discussed or – in relation to a phrase or a sentence – following the punctuation mark (comma, semicolon, or period). Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the normal text area, with a line of about 5 cm set immediately above them .
To help your readers, avoid using footnotes altogether and include necessary peripheral observations in the text (within parentheses, if you prefer, as in this sentence). All footnotes must be numbered consecutively (in Arabic numbers) on each page.

3.4 Citations and References
Whenever you refer to previously published work, you should set a reference to acknowledge the work you build upon.
References and citations should follow the Harvard System Convention an APA Citation Style. As example you may consider the citation (Smith & Moore, 2008). Besides that, all references should be cited in the text. No numbers with or without brackets should be used to cite or to list the references.
In Microsoft Word use the View | Citations menu option to add citations and Document Elements menu option to add references (see the References section).

3.5 Tables
All tables must be numbered consecutively (in Arabic numbers). Table headings should be placed above the table. Leave no blank line between the table and the caption.

Table 1 Table captions should always be positioned above the tables.
Heading level Example Font size and style
Title (centered) How to Write … 14 point, bold
1st-level heading Paper Preparation 12 point, bold
2nd-level heading 2.1 Paper Organization 11 point, bold
3rd-level heading Headings … 11 point, bold
4th-level heading Remark. Text follows … 11 point, italic

3.6 Equations
Equations or formulas are sequentially numbered in numeric fashion with the equation number and the title above the equation. Leave no blank line between the equation and the caption.
In Microsoft Word use the [ Insert | Caption ] menu option to add captions.
Equation 1 Formula for Submission Acceptance

3.7 Figures
All figures should be centred, except for very small figures (no wider than 7 cm), which may be placed side by side. The fonts inside pictures must be clearly readable. Figures are sequentially numbered in numeric fashion with the table number and the title below the figures.
Place the caption beneath the picture. Leave no blank line between the picture and the caption.

Figure 1 Correct placement of the figure caption

3.8 Page Numbering and Running Heads
Do not add any text to the headers (do not set running heads) and footers, not even page numbers, because text will be added electronically.

Fine tuning
Do not end a page with a heading or sub-heading. Do not end a page with one or more blank lines, except to avoid ‘widow’ headings and to end your article. Avoid starting a page with an incomplete line. Do not underline headings, sub-headings, title, figure captions and table headings. Keep footnotes to a minimum or else list them in a special section before references.

4 Appendix
Appendices, if needed, appear before the acknowledgment.

5 Acknowledgement
Remember to thank those that have supported you and your work. Use the singular heading even if you have many acknowledgments.

6 References
Smith, J. & Moore, R. (2008). Article Title/The English version of the title. Journal Name in italics/ The English version of the Journal’s name, Vol., No., (month & year of the edition) page numbers (first-last).
Smith, J. & Moore, R. (2008). Book Title in italics in the oringinal language/The English version of the book title. Location: Publisher.
Smith, J. & Moore, R. ( 2009). Article Title/The English version of the title. Proceedings of… in italics/ The English version of the Proceedings, pp. 1-10, conference location, year & month. Location: Publisher.
Smith, J. & Moore, R. (2008). Web page. Retrieved from, date: 09.18.2011.

Do you need urgent help with this or a similar assignment? We got you. Simply place your order and leave the rest to our experts.

Order Now

Quality Guaranteed!

Written From Scratch.

We Keep Time!

Scroll to Top