Research and Publication

Counselors who conduct research are encouraged to contribute to the knowledge base of the profession and promote a clearer understanding of the conditions that lead to a healthy and more just society. Counselors support the efforts of researchers by participating fully and willingly whenever possible. Counselors minimize bias and respect diversity in designing and implementing research.
G.1. Research Responsibilities
G.1.a. Conducting Research Counselors plan, design, conduct, and report research in a manner that is consistent with pertinent ethical principles, federal and state laws, host institutional regulations, and scientific standards governing research.
G.1.b. Confidentiality in Research
Counselors are responsible for under- standing and adhering to state, federal, agency, or institutional policies or applicable guidelines regarding confidentiality in their research practices.
G.1.c. Independent Researchers When counselors conduct independent research and do not have access to an institutional review board, they are bound to the same ethical principles and

federal and state laws pertaining to the review of their plan, design, conduct, and reporting of research.
G.1.d. Deviation From Standard Practice
Counselors seek consultation and observe stringent safeguards to protect the rights of research participants when research indicates that a deviation from standard or acceptable practices may be necessary.
G.1.e. Precautions to
Avoid Injury
Counselors who conduct research are responsible for their participants’ welfare throughout the research process and should take reasonable precautions to avoid causing emotional, physical, or social harm to participants.
G.1.f. Principal Researcher Responsibility
The ultimate responsibility for ethical research practice lies with the principal researcher. All others involved in the re- search activities share ethical obligations and responsibility for their own actions.
G.2. Rights of Research Participants
G.2.a. Informed Consent in Research
Individuals have the right to decline requests to become research participants. In seeking consent, counselors use language that

  1. accurately explains the purpose and procedures to be followed;
  2. identifies any procedures that are experimental or relatively untried;
  3. describes any attendant discomforts, risks, and potential power differentials between researchers and participants;
  4. describes any benefits or changes in individuals or organizations that might reasonably be expected;
  5. discloses appropriate alternative procedures that would be advantageous for participants;
  6. offers to answer any inquiries concerning the procedures;
  7. describes any limitations on confidentiality;
  8. describes the format and potential target audiences for the dissemi- nation of research findings; and
  9. instructs participants that they are free to withdraw their con- sent and discontinue participation in the project at any time, without penalty.

G.2.b. Student/Supervisee Participation
Researchers who involve students or supervisees in research make clear to them that the decision regarding participation in research activities does not affect their academic standing or supervisory relationship. Students or supervisees who choose not to participate in research are provided with an appropriate alternative to fulfill their academic or clinical requirements.
G.2.c. Client Participation Counselors conducting research involving clients make clear in the informed consent process that clients are free to choose whether to participate in re- search activities. Counselors take necessary precautions to protect clients from adverse consequences of declining or withdrawing from participation.
G.2.d. Confidentiality of Information
Information obtained about research participants during the course of re- search is confidential. Procedures are implemented to protect confidentiality.
G.2.e. Persons Not
Capable of Giving Informed Consent
When a research participant is not capable of giving informed consent, counselors provide an appropriate explanation to, obtain agreement for participation from, and obtain the appropriate consent of a legally authorized person.
G.2.f. Commitments to Participants
Counselors take reasonable measures to honor all commitments to research participants.
G.2.g. Explanations After Data Collection
After data are collected, counselors provide participants with full clarification of the nature of the study to re- move any misconceptions participants might have regarding the research. Where scientific or human values justify delaying or withholding information, counselors take reasonable measures to avoid causing harm.
G.2.h. Informing Sponsors
Counselors inform sponsors, institutions, and publication channels regarding research procedures and outcomes. Counselors ensure that appropriate bodies and authorities are given pertinent information and acknowledgment.

G.2.i. Research Records Custodian
As appropriate, researchers prepare and disseminate to an identified colleague or records custodian a plan for the transfer of research data in the case of their incapacitation, retirement, or death.
G.3. Managing and Maintaining Boundaries
G.3.a. Extending Researcher– Participant Boundaries
Researchers consider the risks and benefits of extending current research relationships beyond conventional parameters. When a non research interaction between the researcher and the research participant may be potentially beneficial, the researcher must document, prior to the interaction (when feasible), the rationale for such an interaction, the potential benefit, and anticipated con- sequences for the research participant. Such interactions should be initiated with appropriate consent of the research participant. Where unintentional harm occurs to the research participant, the researcher must show evidence of an attempt to remedy such harm.
G.3.b. Relationships With Research Participants
Sexual or romantic counselor–research participant interactions or relationships with current research participants are prohibited. This prohibition applies to both in-person and electronic interactions or relationships.
G.3.c. Sexual Harassment and Research Participants
Researchers do not condone or subject re- search participants to sexual harassment.
G.4. Reporting Results
G.4.a. Accurate Results Counselors plan, conduct, and report research accurately. Counselors do not engage in misleading or fraudulent re- search, distort data, misrepresent data, or deliberately bias their results. They describe the extent to which results are applicable for diverse populations.
G.4.b. Obligation to Report Unfavorable Results
Counselors report the results of any research of professional value. Results that reflect unfavorably on institutions, programs, services, prevailing opinions, or vested interests are not withheld.
G.4.c. Reporting Errors
If counselors discover significant errors in their published research, they take reasonable steps to correct such errors in a correction erratum or through other appropriate publication means.
G.4.d. Identity of Participants Counselors who supply data, aid in the research of another person, report research results, or make original data available take due care to disguise the identity of respective participants in the absence of specific authorization from the participants to do otherwise. In situations where participants self- identify their involvement in research studies, researchers take active steps to ensure that data are adapted/ changed to protect the identity and welfare of all parties and that discussion of results does not cause harm to participants.
G.4.e. Replication Studies Counselors are obligated to make available sufficient original research information to qualified professionals who may wish to replicate or extend the study.
G.5. Publications and Presentations
G.5.a. Use of Case Examples
The use of participants’, clients’, students’, or supervisees’ information for the purpose of case examples in a presentation or publication is permissible only when (a) participants, clients, students, or supervisees have reviewed the material and agreed to its presentation or publication or (b) the information has been sufficiently modified to obscure identity.
G.5.b. Plagiarism
Counselors do not plagiarize; that is, they do not present another person’s work as their own.
G.5.c. Acknowledging Previous Work
In publications and presentations, counselors acknowledge and give recognition to previous work on the topic by others or self.
G.5.d. Contributors
Counselors give credit through joint authorship, acknowledgment, foot- note statements, or other appropriate means to those who have contributed significantly to research or concept development in accordance with such contributions. The principal contributor is listed first, and minor technical or professional contributions are acknowledged in notes or introductory statements.

G.5.e. Agreement of
Counselors who conduct joint research with colleagues or students/supervisors establish agreements in advance regarding allocation of tasks, publication credit, and types of acknowledgment that will be received.
G.5.f. Student Research Manuscripts or professional presentations in any medium that are substantially based on a student’s course papers, projects, dissertations, or theses are used only with the student’s permission and list the student as lead author.
G.5.g. Duplicate Submissions Counselors submit manuscripts for consideration to only one journal at a time. Manuscripts that are published in whole or in substantial part in one journal or published work are not submitted for publication to another publisher with- out acknowledgment and permission from the original publisher.
G.5.h. Professional Review Counselors who review material sub- mitted for publication, research, or other scholarly purposes respect the confidentiality and proprietary rights of those who submitted it. Counselors make publication decisions based on valid and defensible standards. Counselors review article submissions in a timely manner and based on their scope and competency in research methodologies. Counselors who serve as reviewers at the request of editors or publishers make every effort to only review materials that are within their scope of competency and avoid personal biases.

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