1. Would a blood report for a drug that is not bound to plasma proteins reflect what is present in the interstitial fluid? What is the reasoning for your answer? (2 points)
  2. When neurons are placed in hypertonic solutions (high solute concentration), do the neurons swell or shrink? Explain. (2 points)
  3. When neurons are placed in hypertonic solutions (high solute concentration), how might the change in cell volume (from placing neurons in hypertonic solution) affect action potential (AP) generation? (Hint: focus on what happens to ion channels in general as a result of the above change in cell volume). (2 points)
  4. What are the main functional differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems? Provide an example of the functions for each of the autonomic (including sympathetic & parasympathetic) and somatic nervous systems. (3 points)
  5. Neostigmine inhibits enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that is responsible for the synaptic junction breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). When given to a Myasthenia Gravis patient, will Neostigmine increase or decrease the activation of Ach receptors? (1 point)
  6. Explain the differences between positive and negative feedback loops in physiology and provide 1 example of each feedback loop. (4 point)
  7. Explain the following transport systems across cell membrane (in general): 1. Voltage- gated ion channel; 2. Ligand-gated ion channel; 3. Na+/K+ ATP pump. (6 points)
  8. What will happen to the level of TRH and TSH if the levels of T3 & T4 are low (hypothyroidism)? (1 point)
  9. Given the following arterial blood data, determine whether the acid-base disorder was respiratory (ventilatory) or metabolic (renal) in origin and whether or not compensation for the disorder has occurred (partial or completed) and if it was respiratory or renal compensation. pH = 7.55, HCO3- = 44 mEq/L, pCO2 = 50 mmHg. (2 points)

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