# Improving Performance of Students

RESEARCH STUDY
A researcher wants to explore methods to improve student exam performance. She examines how the method that students’ take notes (either by hand or by computer) and the difficulty of the content (easy or hard) affects exam grades. Her sample includes 30 students from two university math classes with the same teacher. During one class, easy content was taught and half of the students were randomly assigned to take notes by hand and the other half took notes by computer. During the other class, hard content was taught and half of the students were randomly assigned to take notes by hand the other half took notes by computer. After the classes, a math exam was given to all students. The mean exam grades of the four conditions are displayed below:

``Easy content    Hard content    Overall Means``

By hand 90 80
By computer 90 50
Overall Means

``a) What type of study design is this?  ``

b) What are the independent variables and dependent variable in this study?

c) Calculate the overall means for each level of each independent variable (enter in above graph).

d) Draw a bar graph of the overall means of the content difficulty variable. Does there appear to be a main effect?

e) Draw a bar graph of the overall means of the style of notetaking variable. Does there appear to be a main effect?

f) Draw a line graph to assess whether there is an interaction. Does there appear to be an interaction? Why or why not?

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