History 10: Note Packet 1


What is History?

History is the study of change over time.

Why Study History?

Studying the past is important to make a better future.

How do we know what we know?

  • Primary Sources
    • Examples: Anything created around the time being studied. Journal entries, formal documents, letters, or artifacts.
  • Secondary Sources
    • Examples: A book, lectures, documentaries.

Does it matter who is telling the story?     

Why? Yes, it matters who is telling the story because an individual’s own experiences, interest, and understanding shape how they see the past.

  • Examples: Martha Ballard’s diary. She wrote a diary with detailed information about her life and town. The diary was known by historians but they did nothing with it. Laurel Thatcher Ulrich found the diary and was able to tell an amazing story about the history of women and the story of the town in its early years.

Civilizations before Europeans:

“The Rise and Fall of Cahokia”

  • What were some of the most surprising or impressive things you learned in this brief video?

I found it interesting that they used fecal stanols to get more information on population.

Africa’s Great Civilizations

  • What were some of the most surprising or impressive things you learned in this brief overview?


The American Yawp, Indigenous America Sections I and II

  • How do migration histories explain the arrival of humans in the Americas?
  • How did agriculture develop and what impact did it have?
  • What are some of the similarities across indigenous cultures?
  • What were some of the important features of Chaco Canyon?
  • Explain the way slavery worked in Cahokia.
  • What were some of the important features of Lenape culture?
  • What were some of the unique features of the cultures in the Pacific Northwest?

Christopher Columbus

  • What do we know about Columbus?
  • Why did Ferdinand and Isabella agree to pay?
  • Columbus gains hereditary rights to any new lands
    • What does this mean?
  • Why does this matter?

What Comes Next? Colonialism –

  • Portugal begins to explore the “New World”
    • Caravels
  • Conflict between Spain and Portugal
  • The Pope has to settle it
  • 1496 Papal Bull gives Spain spiritual responsibility for the Natives
    • What does this mean?
  • What is the impact?

The Columbian Exchange

  • What does this mean?
  • The Atlantic Ocean becomes a “highway”
  • It goes both ways!
  • Animals brought to the Americas
    • Horses, sheep, cows, and pigs – what would be their impact?
  • Cats and dogs
  • Rats
  • Plants brought to the Americas
    • Wheat, grapes, and olives – what would be their impact?
  • Weeds and worms
  • Plants brought to Europe
    • Corn, potatoes, chocolate – what would be their impact?
  • Wealth – extractive economies based on gold, silver, fur, fish, wood, etc.
  • What would be their impact?
  • Disease
    • Examples
  • Syphilis
  • A ‘virgin soil’ epidemic
    • What does this mean?
  • What is the impact of disease?

The American Yawp, Indigenous America Section III

  • What was going on in Europe before Columbus’s expedition?
  • What were the Taíno or Arawaks like when Columbus arrived?
  • How did Bartolomé de Las Casas describe Spanish colonialism?

The Spanish in Mexico –

  • The Aztec Empire
    • What do we know?
  • Hernan Cortes
    • Background
  • Plans for Mexico
  • Malinche
    • Who was she?
  • 1519 – First march into Tenochtitlan
    • What were the responses of the Spaniards?
  • What were the responses of the Aztec?
  • Welcomed with gifts and then run out of town
  • Why?
  • The establishment of a Spanish Stronghold

New France

  • Jacques Cartier, 1534
    • Fur
  • The French Frontier of Inclusion
    • What does this mean?
  • The relationship between the French, the Natives, and fur
  • Private Trading Companies
  • coureurs de bois
  • Gift Exchange
    • How did this work?
  • Why was it important?
  • Kinship
    • What is kinship?
  • Why develop these relationships?
  • What do French men get from marrying Native women?
  • What do Native women get from marrying French men?
  • Métis
    • What does this mean?
  • What is their role in colonial society?
  • Trading
    • What trade goods would indigenous people be interested in?
  • Why?
  • What impact would these goods have on indigenous societies?

Beyond the Fur Trade

  • Quebec, 1608 – What do we need to know?
    • Extremely slow growth
  • Habitants:
  • Engagés:
  • Les Filles du Roi:

The American Yawp, Indigenous America Parts IV and V

  • What were the encomienda and repartimiento systems?
  • Describe the Inca or Quechua Empire and “conquest.”
  • Explain the Sistema de Castas.

The American Yawp, Colliding Cultures Parts I, II, and III

  • Describe French Colonization
  • Describe Dutch Colonization
  • Describe Portuguese Colonization

Early English Colonies

Early Efforts

  • Why did it take the English so long to start colonizing?
  • How did Richard Hakluyt defend colonization in “Discourse on Western Planting”?
  • Joint-stock companies
  • Roanoke, 1587
    • Who comes to the colony?
  • John White, governor
  • How did it turn out?
    • Croatoan
  • What happened to the “Lost Colony”?
  • Jamestown, 1607
    • The Virginia Company, joint-stock company
  • How did this work?
  • John Smith
    • Mythology:
  • Reality:
  • Pocahontas
    • Mythology:
  • Reality:
  • Powhatan
  • How did he build his confederacy?
  • The Starving Times
  • Conflict with Natives
  • Why did things get so bad?
  • What was the outcome?

Native Conflict with the English

  • Opechancanough
    • Who was he?
  • What did he think of the English?
  • Nemattanew – Religious Prophet
    • What was his vision?
  • How does this impact Opechancanough?
  • Attack on Jamestown, March 22, 1622
  • 347 Settlers killed
    • What’s the impact?
  • English Response
  • How does this change their opinion of the Natives?
  • How does this change their relationship moving forward?

The Chesapeake Colonies

Virginia Figures it Out

  • Tobacco
    • Needs lots of land
  • Need for Labor
    • Headright Grant
  • Indentured Servitude
  • Anne Orthwood
    • Childhood
  • William Kendall
  • John Kendall
  • Fornication trial
  • What happens to her and her child?
  • What makes her story important?

Life in the Colony

  • 1642 – Major Migration
  • Strong Link to England
  • Hierarchical System

Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676

  • William Berkeley – royal governor
  • Nathanial Bacon – wealthy newcomer
  • Tensions over Natives lead to violence
  • 23 Supporters Hanged
  • Government becomes more conciliatory
    • What changes did they make?
  • Racial identity becomes more important than class
    • What does this mean?
  • Institution of race-based slavery

The American Yawp, Colliding Cultures Sections IV and V

  • Describe the Powhatan Confederacy.
  • What was life like in Jamestown in the first few decades?
  • What impact did tobacco have on the colony?
  • Why is the year 1619 significant?
  • What were early ideas about race and slavery like?

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